Apply a topical ointment or lotion after showering. Find an ointment the contains benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid or alpha hydroxy acid. Many of these are available over the counter from brands such as Clearasil and Proactive. You may want to try a lotion that was scientifically developed for this purpose of eliminating buttocks breakouts, Butt Acne Clearing Lotion by Green Heart Labs.
In most cases, common warts appear on the fingers or hands. They're caused by the human papillomavirus. Warts spread when you touch something used by a person with the virus. To prevent more warts, cover them with bandages, keep them dry, and don’t pick them. They're usually harmless and painless. You can treat them with topical medications, or a doctor can freeze or burn them off. More advanced removal techniques include surgery, lasers, and chemicals.
There are many common aesthetic concerns that bother us with age. Some of these include sun damage, fine lines, stretch marks, and even surgical or acne scars. These bothersome aesthetic conditions can be easily treated with our ICON laser technology. Plastic Surgery Consultants offers this treatment to the residents of Lexington, Columbia, and the surrounding areas of South Carolina.
Hi Jill, that’s such great knowledge to share – thank you!!!! I have tried LED treatments and they worked pretty well in the past. But my dermatologist says I can’t do them now as we are trying for a baby (*blush*) and they might not be safe. As for the facials, I always end up having them post-period to clean up the mess but I really like your idea of trying them two weeks before… maybe that would prevent so many clogged pores in the first place?
"Usually acne spot treatments incorporate typical acne ingredients, such as salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, glycolic acid, or sulfur, at a higher concentration than is normally found in cleansers in lotions," explains dermatologist Dr. Ted Lain of Samova Dermatology. "By targeting individual pimples with a stronger product, the idea is that the dryness and redness that could occur with a stronger product is offset by the quicker resolution and smaller area of treatment." He notes that small pimples and pus bumps tend to respond well to spot treatments, while cysts and nodules — aka those deep, tender suckers that tend to stick around for a while — rarely resolve with these types of treatments alone.
I’m not a caffeine addict (I much prefer sleep to coffee), and I’ve never had a dairy-heavy diet (except for Friday pizza night, which is not negotiable). Cutting back on toast, penne, rice-with-everything, and cocktails has been the painful part. But I have seen a huge difference between the weeks I survive on Stromboli and the ones padded with veggies. Smooth skin is a pretty damn effective motivator.
“Sometimes I see people try over-the-counter products just for a couple of weeks, they get frustrated, they say it’s not working, and they discontinue them,” Arthur says. “But it really does take a while to see the effectiveness. So unless you’re having a problem with the medication, like it’s causing severe irritation or dryness, it’s recommended to give it at least 2-3 months before switching to something else.”
Here’s a fun fact: If you’re prone to breakouts on your face, you’re equally prone to getting blemishes on your back (aka bacne), according to Dr. Dendy Engelman, a cosmetic dermatologist in NYC. Lucky you. Though the two areas may seem completely different, they both have the same oil-producing glands that, when mixed with bacteria and dead skin cells, can cause breakouts.
Acne scar treatment: Energy-based skin resurfacing with a laser, radiofrequency, or an ultrasound device can help treat boxcar scars, according to Nada Elbuluk, MD, an assistant professor at the Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology at New York University Langone Medical Center in New York City. “They all work by creating new collagen beneath the surface of the skin.” A series of treatments is likely needed based on the extent of scarring, she says. Chemical peels can also help but to a lesser extent. With either procedure, using a retinoid to increase cell turnover and further boost collagen can help improve results, Dr. Elbuluk adds.

Prescription oral preparations are prescribed by your doctor or dermatologist to suppress acne which has more widespread comedones and acne pimples that are more inflamed, deeper and larger. Oral prescription-only medications include antibiotics, the oral contraceptive pill and anti-androgens.  A topical comedolytic treatment is usually prescribed.
It’s been almost five years since I stopped taking isotretinoin, and the mountain range of cysts spread across my face is long gone. I don’t worry what people see when they look at me, and looking in the mirror no longer means fixating on flaws. When I look at my reflection I don’t see embarrassment and frustration staring back at me anymore. Instead, all I see is my face.
Your nose, not surprisingly, is connected to your lungs and heart. To combat breakouts in this area, Hsu recommends cutting back on spicy foods, meat, and salt and replacing them with fruits, veggies, nuts (which are full of good fats like omega-3 and -6). If you’re getting constant breakouts on your nose, check your blood pressure and vitamin B levels—Hsu says that upping your vitamin B intake can help combat flare-ups.

The left cheek can be faced with breakouts due to the lungs, liver issues, overeating, stress, stomach problems, dirty cell phones, dirty pillowcases or dirty makeup brushes. It’s important to keep the skin clean every day, especially if your environment is a polluted one. Frequently change pillowcases and wipe screens of cell phones. Remain relaxed with a normal daily schedule.
I feel for you dee bee. 🙁 My acne also cleared up during pregnancy, which for me signifies that a hormonal imbalance was corrected by the pregnancy. The questions is, how? Have you seen an endocrinologist? My internist wants me too; that’s next on the list. I was supposed to see my dermatologist Wed (after many weeks of waiting) to get on spiro. She canceled the appointment. I was upset, but I’ve decided it’s a sign that I should try alternative means one more time. My chiro put me on a host of Standard Process supplements to support the thyroid and adrenals. I will let you know if it works.

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Once I finally had the pills in hand, dry skin was the side effect that impacted me the most day-to-day. My once oily face transformed into a desert. A light touch was all it took for the skin on my forehead to come off in flakes, and thin layers peeled off like an onion. Chapstick became a constant necessity. Even though I was always armed with something to soothe my cracked lips (I had at least one stick in my backpack, another in my car, another in my bathroom, and others strewn about my bedroom) my lips remained unusually swollen and puffy. This was followed by nasal dryness that led to the occasional nosebleed.
Hi, it’s actually very weird of me to post something about my acne on the internet but I’ve had acne for about 4 years now. I first started getting acne around 10-11 years old on my forehead. While everyone had baby faces I had very red irritated huge pimples across my whole forehead. Now that I’m 13 I have acne everywhere. But the worst spot for me is on the center of my cheeks (the apples of my cheeks). I’ve always seemed to never clear that area up. And most of the time the surface is smooth but it’s noticeable that I have acne in that area. I also seem to have big pores on my cheeks. I hope you can help because I feel so insecure since everyone has such smooth skin. I’m only 13 and I can’t seem to clear up my acne. Kids always make fun of me because of my acne and I know I’m pretty underneath the pimples.
Metronidazole is thought to act through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, while azelaic acid is thought to decrease cathelicidin production. Oral antibiotics of the tetracycline class such as doxycycline and oxytetracycline are also commonly used and thought to reduce papulopustular lesions through anti-inflammatory actions rather than through their antibacterial capabilities.[10]

Everything you need to know about cystic acne Cystic acne is an uncommon and severe form of acne. The skin condition results from blocked pores in the skin that cause infection and inflammation. Treatment often requires the help of a specialist doctor who can prescribe potent drugs. Read on to learn about symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and prevention. Read now is part of the Meredith Health Group. All rights reserved. The material in this site is intended to be of general informational use and is not intended to constitute medical advice, probable diagnosis, or recommended treatments. All products and services featured are selected by our editors. may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website. Offers may be subject to change without notice. See the Terms of Servicethis link opens in a new tab and Privacy Policythis link opens in a new tab (Your California Rightsthis link opens in a new tab)for more information. Ad Choicesthis link opens in a new tab | EU Data Subject Requeststhis link opens in a new tab

This skin condition is characterized by blockages in the pores of the skin. Despite numerous studies to look into the causes of acne, researchers have had trouble pinning down the precise reasons why acne emerges. Diet, hormone levels, skin type, and infections have all been posited as possible causes for acne, and acne creams work in a number of different ways to address each of these suspected causes.
Forehead breakouts can be caused by a number of issues, including digestive problems, small intestine issues, liver issues, high levels of stress, irregular sleep cycle, poor diets and even reactions to hair products. To combat forehead acne, get at least seven hours of sleep, drink plenty of water to flush out toxins, watch your diet to see if any foods spark breakouts and check if certain facial or hair products are irritating skin. Avoid sugary drinks and foods.

Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is the most common skin disorder in the United States. Therapy targets the four factors responsible for lesion formation: increased sebum production, hyperkeratinization, colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and the resultant inflammatory reaction. Treatment goals include scar prevention, reduction of psychological morbidity, and resolution of lesions. Grading acne based on lesion type and severity can help guide treatment. Topical retinoids are effective in treating inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions by preventing comedones, reducing existing comedones, and targeting inflammation. Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter bactericidal agent that does not lead to bacterial resistance. Topical and oral antibiotics are effective as monotherapy, but are more effective when combined with topical retinoids. The addition of benzoyl peroxide to antibiotic therapy reduces the risk of bacterial resistance. Oral isotretinoin is approved for the treatment of severe recalcitrant acne and can be safely administered using the iPLEDGE program. After treatment goals are reached, maintenance therapy should be initiated. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of laser and light therapies. Referral to a dermatologist should be considered if treatment goals are not met.
Your nose is linked to your heart, and, according to Blondin, cutting back on meat and spicy foods could reduce breakouts here. She recommends swapping these for foods that contain “good fats” like nuts, avocados, fish, or flaxseed. “Also, since this area is chock full of dilated pores, check that your makeup is not past its expiration date or does not contain pore-clogging ingredients,” she says.
The exact pathogenesis of acne is unknown. However, abnormalities in follicular keratinization are thought to produce the acne lesion that develops earliest, the microcomedone. In time, microcomedones may grow into clinically apparent, open comedones (blackheads; Fig. 8.34a) and closed comedones (whiteheads; Fig. 8.34b). The entire process is fueled by androgens, which stimulate sebaceous-gland differentiation and growth, and the production of sebum. The proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes in non-inflammatory comedones, and the rupture of comedone contents into the surrounding dermis, may trigger the development of inflammatory papules, pustules, and cysts (Fig. 8.34c–e). Cystic acne is characterized by nodules and cysts scattered over the face, chest, and back. This variant frequently leads to disfiguring scarring.
Thank you for this post! I have been suffering with acne for almost a year now. I’ve read a bunch of stuff about acne (and how it’s gut related), but I’ve always felt it is hormonal for me. My acne does show up at the start of my period and right before I’m ovulating. I’ve had many crying nights because I can’t figure out how to fix it. I got some blood work done, and the doctor said all my levels of hormones were within the normal ranges. I’ve been paleo/primal for the past 3 years, and I’m pretty strict with what I eat; however a few things did change just before I got the acne outbreak. I started fasting every morning, decreased my carb intake significantly, and I stopped taking the BCP (after being on it for 6 years). Before taking the pill 7 years ago, I had a huge acne problem, but with the pill and severe topical medication, it went away. It didn’t resurface until last year. I’ve tried everything to fix it: Brewer’s yeast, omitting FODMAPS from my diet, no dairy, no nuts, CaveGirlEats oil cleansing, ACV in my hair (in case it was chemicals causing it)…the list goes on. I was skeptical about using what my dermatologist prescribed, but after 6 months of constant redness on my face (that no make-up could cover), I gave in. I took doxicycline for a month, and I started using differin gel. Until I saw this post, I felt like no research I found really described my situation. One thing I’ve never figured out is how to get a good night’s sleep. No matter what, I toss and turn (and wake up to pee midway through the night). I’ve tried complete darkness, a cold room, going to sleep extra early, and listening to rain with an app I have. Geez…I sound like a complete mess, but any advice would be awesome! Thanks again for having this blog and writing this post. 🙂
There are many ways to treat acne. Gentle washing of the face is important because it helps to remove accumulated oil, bacteria, and dead cells on the skin's surface. Other treatments help to unclog pores, kill bacteria, or minimize oil. Products that help to open up pores include mild cleansers, scrubs, exfoliants, and masques. All of these are available without a prescription. Exfoliants remove the outer layer of skin, thus opening pores. These agents, as well as astringents and toners, help to wipe away excess oil. Antibacterial agents are used to kill bacteria. The most common mild antibacterial agent is benzoyl peroxide. It is available in the form of creams or lotions that are applied to affected areas, and may even be found in some cleansers. Other antibacterial agents available by prescription include topical antibiotics such as erythromycin , clindamycin, and sulfacetamide, and oral antibiotics such as tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and sulfa drugs.

Hey Rhiannon, there is no ‘hate’ happening here ever, so chill 🙂 In fact, I really appreciate your writing in! Everybody’s body is different and reacts in various manners to the same elements. That said, have you thought of visiting a gynaec to check for any hormonal imbalances? I am not a doctor but those who are medically qualified often tell me that this is the main cause of chronic acne for teens and pre-teens.
In unusual cases, a skin biopsy may be required to help confirm the diagnosis of rosacea. Occasionally, a dermatologist may perform a noninvasive test called a skin scraping in the office to help exclude a skin mite infestation by Demodex, which can look just like rosacea (and may be a triggering factor). A skin culture can help exclude other causes of facial skin bumps like staph infections or herpes infections. Blood tests are not generally required but may help exclude less common causes of facial blushing and flushing, including systemic lupus, other autoimmune conditions, carcinoid, and dermatomyositis.
How to Handle It: Pair two of the best-known acne-fighting ingredients, salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide, in the week leading up to your period. (If you're feeling bloated, now's the time to do it.) The combo can help prevent hormonal acne from happening in the first place. Zeichner suggests following a salicylic acid wash, like fan-favorite Neutrogena Oil-Free Acne Wash Pink Grapefruit Facial Cleanser ($7), with a benzoyl peroxide spot treatment, such as Murad Acne Spot Fast Fix ($22). If you're still seeing zits, "visit your dermatologist to discuss prescription options, like birth control pills, oral spironolactone — which blocks oil — or topical Aczone 7.5 percent gel," says Zeichner. "It's shown to be particularly effective in adult women without causing irritation." Oral contraceptives level out those hormone fluctuations, keeping your oil production normal and your skin clear.
If you're looking for a natural option, Dr. Wexler suggests this one for its powerful cocktail of ingredients like tea tree oil, willow bark, and yoghurt. "It targets irritation-causing bacteria, while shrinking pores and controlling excess oil production," she says. It also contains a biocomplex of vitamins A, E, C, and coenzyme Q10, which are all "potent antioxidants that fight free radicals and diminish visible signs of aging."
I am 22 years old and I have been struggling with acne (both cystic and smaller pimples) for years now, mostly around the jawline and mouth, but also in all other places less frequently. I went to a dermatologist 6 months ago who suggested I stop eating cheese- she said it is a very hard thing for our bodies to digest. I went ahead and cut out all cheese from my diet and saw a huge reduction in the number and size of pimples around my mouth and chin. She said cutting out all dairy would help even further, which I have done and have really seen an improvement. She also said to drink more water and to make sure I’m getting enough Omegas (3-6-9 = fish and flax oils). Ever since following her advice 6 months ago, my skin has dramatically improved. I know this is only one case (my own) but it does give some validity to the face-mapping theory! I think some people want scientific data to back up facts because that translates into “proof” that this is accurate, but I think there is more proof in the many responses you have gotten from real people having real results.
Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter (OTC) acne treatments is increasing (Decker & Graber 2012) and many people use both prescriptive and OTC medicines. There are five different kinds of OTC acne therapies: 1) cleansers, 2) leave-on products, 3) mechanical treatments, 4) essential oils and 5) vitamins (this includes retinol obtained from vitamin A) (Kligman & Gans 2000).
Many doctors seem tempted to use as many as five or six treatments. I believe, however, that most acne can be treated effectively with two drugs, or at most three, at any one time. Failure to respond to a regimen within four to eight weeks should prompt a substantial change in drugs, not merely the addition of another product. Besides adding expense with little benefit, complex regimens are usually more irritating and present problems with compliance.
Intralesional injection of 0.1 mL triamcinolone acetonide suspension 2.5 mg/mL (the 10 mg/mL suspension must be diluted) is indicated for patients with firm (cystic) acne who seek quick clinical improvement with reduced scarring. Local atrophy may occur but is usually transient. For isolated, very boggy lesions, incision and drainage are often beneficial but may result in residual scarring.
At times, pimples around the mouth might not be what it looks like at a glance. In many cases, it is confused with rash called perioral dermatitis. The rash is composed of many tiny, red (it can be slightly red or strongly red depending on the severity of the case) blisters that usually appear under the nose, over upper lip, over the jaw, mouth corners and cheeks.
My breakouts are on the neck and temples and I have a lot of large pores filled with sebum and blackheads. I have eaten all natural foods for many years and already do all the things you suggest trying. I think I have hormonal acne which was previously controlled with ProActiv. I stopped using it 2 months ago and my face is in pretty bad shape now. I have also noticed an increase in facial warts. I love your products, but I’m not seeing any happy results yet.
The area along the top of your head, where it meets your hair, is your hairline. Many people get acne along this area. While we put a lot of focus on keeping our hair clean, we often don’t realize that some products that we use on our hair can lead to acne along the hairline. Referred to by some people as “pomade acne,” this type of acne occurs along the hairline as a result of the ingredients in your hair products. Hair products that have pore-clogging ingredients, such as those that are thick or may have minerals in them, can tend to create a build-up that clogs the pores and follicles, and leads to hairline acne.
Kick the habit of eating a lot of processed foods. Cut down sugar from your diet. Chips, baked goodies, and soft drinks raise your blood sugar levels and affect your breakout patterns. Also, if you find that dairy products trigger your breakouts, cut down on their consumption. Drink plenty of water. When you are dehydrated, your body produces more oil. Also, when you are dehydrated, your cells cannot function properly.
I am 25 years old and have struggled with acne around the mouth for most of my life. It’s not that I have a significant problem with acne, it’s that whenever it flares up, it is usually around the mouth area. This information is really relevant to me and has made me realize, and hopefully now be able to address, some of the skin problems I have been dealing with since I was a teen. Thank you!
Acne is graded into four levels of severity: mild, moderate, severe and very severe (Katsambas et al 2004). Mild acne usually includes comedones with a few mild pustules. Moderate acne includes many comedones and pustules with a few small nodules but no scarring. In severe acne there are many pustules and nodules with marked inflammation and scarring. In very severe acne there are also sinus tracts with many deeply located nodules. Propionibacterium acnes is the main bacterium cited in acne vulgaris and many in vitro studies look at kill times against this bacteria (Viyoch et al 2006, Fu et al 2007, Lerysatitthanakorn et al 2010). Some studies such as Gavini et al (2005) have investigated how to encapsulate an essential oil (in this case juniper) inside a solid lipid microparticle (SLM) for longevity. However, propionbacterium is a commensal that lives happily just below the surface of the skin and keeps it healthy. It is only when the sebaceous glands become overactive that the pores can become blocked and cause propionbacterium to multiply. Therefore, for essential oils to be effective against acne, they need to have antiseptic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, citratrisant, keratolytic, and antiscarring properties. (Keratolytic agents help remove the hardened comedone.)
Benzoyl peroxide is effective at zapping acne-causing bacteria, according to Dr. Shainhouse. This wash—which can be used on the face, chest and back—has the highest concentration of benzoyl peroxide you can get without a prescription. She recommends alternating a wash that contains benzoyl peroxide to get rid of bacteria and a salicylic acid-based one to unclog pores and dry up zits.
Certain acne products that contain benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid can rarely cause very bad and sometimes life-threatening allergic reactions or very bad irritation. Before first use, you may need to follow certain steps to make sure you do not have an allergic reaction. Use Acne Treatment (benzoyl peroxide cream) as you were told by the doctor or read the package label. Talk with the doctor.
Antibiotics. Antibiotics may be used on top of the skin (topical) or taken orally (systemic). Antibiotics work by clearing the skin of acne-causing bacteria and reducing inflammation. There are several topical products available in creams, gels, solutions, pads, foams, and lotions. Topical antibiotics are limited in their ability to penetrate the skin and clear more deep-seated acne, whereas systemic antibiotics circulate throughout the body and into sebaceous glands. However, systemic antibiotics often cause more side effects than topicals, but they can be used for more severe kinds of acne. Usually, topical antibiotics aren't recommended alone as an acne treatment, as they can increase the risk for antibiotic resistance in skin bacteria. However, using benzoyl peroxide with a topical antibiotic may reduce the chances of developing antibiotic resistance.
If you're looking for something all-natural, Dr. Dr. Lortscher suggests Tea Tree Oil, which has anti-inflammatory properties and also acts as an antifungal, antibacterial, and astringent agent. On its own, it can be irritating, so be sure to dilute one part Tea Tree Oil it with three parts of another oil like sunflower, castor, jojoba or hemp oil (just stay away from coconut oil, which can clog your pores).
Aside from the obvious fact that a good face wash can help heal acne and pimple-prone skin, your choice of facial cleanser really matters when you’re trying to get rid of acne. For starters, the wrong face washes can cause acne, or at least, make yours a lot worse. Throughout the day, your skin does come into contact with a lot of dirt and grime, and it also secretes sebum – an oily, waxy, fatty substance that keeps your skin waterproof and lubricated. Oily skin is the result of an excessive amount of sebum secretion, and most soaps are designed to remove that oil from your skin. However, your skin actually needs some of that sebum to function normally. Without it, you end up with dry skin that tightens to create clogged pores and, ultimately, acne.

I have a great deal of acne on my jawline and I get microderm abrasion done at my dermatologists office every two weeks. They have mentioned to me numerous times that a hormonal imbalance is causing it….which is exactly what your blog suggested. I also have developed breakouts in the center of my forehead, which is rare for me. However, I’ve been very busy this summer with social events and I’ve done a lot more drinking than what’s normal for me. This area being related to the liver makes perfect and complete sense to me.
And that problem is where my real woes began. Perioral dermatitis is triggered by an overgrowth of bacterial yeast, which can come from stress and humidity, two things I’m OK with never having in my life again. But it can also come from two things that make me unreasonably happy: carbs and alcohol. Lancer says sugar from bread, pasta, potatoes, rice, booze, and even fruit can all contribute. So lifestyle modification is the best way to prevent those bumps from resprouting. “We teach patients about nutrition — going to zero caffeine intake, zero dairy intake, and very low carb intake,” says Lancer, who completes the prescription with a topical blend of hydrocortisone and antifungal treatment, applied twice a day for two days.
An acne face map can be an important clue in helping you to determine what is causing your outbreaks. Depending on where your acne is located, you may be able to narrow down what’s bringing it on and how to help eliminate it, as well as prevent more of it. The more you can learn about what may be leading to acne outbreaks, the better position you will be in to clear up your skin. Once the acne is gone, you can turn your focus to having smooth, beautiful skin that you will love.
Areas of the face, like the cheeks, forehead and chin, are believed to correspond to organs in the body, explains Rachel Nazarian, MD, a board-certified dermatologist in New York City. “The idea is that the skin could be used to map out sources below the surface that require medical attention," she says. "For example, if you had blemishes on your forehead, perhaps a problem with the small intestine was to blame."
Recommended therapies for first-line use in acne vulgaris treatment include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and topical or oral antibiotics.[77] Procedures such as light therapy and laser therapy are not considered to be first-line treatments and typically have an adjunctive role due to their high cost and limited evidence of efficacy.[76] Medications for acne work by targeting the early stages of comedo formation and are generally ineffective for visible skin lesions; improvement in the appearance of acne is typically expected between six and eight weeks after starting therapy.[1]
Frequently used topical retinoids include adapalene, isotretinoin, retinol, tazarotene, and tretinoin.[46] They often cause an initial flare-up of acne and facial flushing, and can cause significant skin irritation. Generally speaking, retinoids increase the skin's sensitivity to sunlight and are therefore recommended for use at night.[1] Tretinoin is the least expensive of the topical retinoids and is the most irritating to the skin, whereas adapalene is the least irritating to the skin but costs significantly more.[1][83] Tazarotene is the most effective and expensive topical retinoid, but is not as well-tolerated.[1][83] Retinol is a form of vitamin A that has similar but milder effects, and is used in many over-the-counter moisturizers and other topical products.

After individual treatment goals have been met, oral antibiotics can be discontinued and replaced with topical retinoids for maintenance therapy.2 Topical retinoids are sufficient to prevent relapses in most patients with acne vulgaris, especially if the disease was originally classified as mild or moderate. If the patient's acne was initially classified as severe inflammatory, benzoyl peroxide with or without an antibiotic can be added for maintenance therapy.2
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